The Swift Parrot A Critically Endangered Australian Native

Swift Parrot

10 Ways to Help Save the Swift Parrot from Extinction

The Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor) is a beautiful yet critically endangered bird native to southeastern Australia. Known for its fast flight, vibrant colors, and unique migratory behavior, this medium-sized parrot faces numerous threats that have pushed it to the brink of extinction.

What does a Swift Parrot look like?

The Swift Parrot is around 25 cm long with a streamlined body built for speed. Its mostly bright green plumage is accented by a dark blue patch on the crown, and striking red feathers on the face, throat, and wings. Males are slightly more vibrant than females. In flight, their long, pointed wings and tail are distinct.

Where do Swift Parrots live?

Swift Parrots have an impressive migratory lifestyle. They breed exclusively in Tasmania during the summer months. In the winter, they fly north across the Bass Strait to forage in the forests of southeastern mainland Australia, from Victoria up to southern Queensland. Within this range, they inhabit dry eucalyptus forests and woodlands as well as suburban parks and gardens with flowering trees.

Swift Parrot Distribution CC BY-SA 4.0
Swift Parrot Distribution CC BY-SA 4.0

Important Bird Areas

BirdLife International has identified several sites as being crucial for the survival of swift parrots. These Important Bird Areas (IBAs) provide critical breeding, roosting, and feeding habitats for the species during different stages of their migratory cycle.

In New South Wales, the key IBAs for swift parrots include:

  • Brisbane Water: A coastal area offering winter foraging sites.
  • Capertee Valley: The largest canyon in NSW, providing vital winter habitat.
  • Hastings-Macleay: A diverse region supporting swift parrots during winter.
  • Hunter Valley: Known for its eucalyptus forests, which serve as winter feeding grounds.
  • Lake Macquarie: An extensive coastal lake system attracting swift parrots.
  • Richmond Woodlands: A significant winter foraging area near the Blue Mountains.
  • South-west Slopes of NSW: Box-ironbark woodlands acting as a key winter habitat.
  • Tuggerah: Coastal wetlands and forests providing winter refuge.
  • Ulladulla to Merimbula: A stretch of the southern coast important for winter survival.

In Victoria, the primary IBAs for swift parrots are:

  • Bendigo Box-Ironbark Region: A major winter foraging area with extensive woodlands.
  • Maryborough-Dunolly Box-Ironbark Region: Another significant box-ironbark habitat.
  • Puckapunyal: A military area containing important remnant vegetation.
  • Rushworth Box-Ironbark Region: A key winter destination for swift parrots.
  • St Arnaud Box-Ironbark Region: An area of box-ironbark forest supporting winter populations.
  • Warby-Chiltern Box-Ironbark Region: A protected area rich in swift parrot food sources.

In Tasmania, the essential IBAs for swift parrots include:

  • Bruny Island: Providing critical breeding habitat off the Tasmanian coast.
  • Maria Island: An important island sanctuary for breeding swift parrots.
  • South-east Tasmania: The main breeding range for the species, with vital nesting sites.


Swift parrots inhabit a variety of habitats across their range, depending on the season and the availability of their preferred eucalyptus food trees. During the breeding season in Tasmania, they rely on mature hollow-bearing trees for nesting, primarily in the southeast of the state. Foraging takes place in flowering eucalyptus forests, particularly those with blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and black gum (Eucalyptus ovata).

On the mainland, swift parrots are found in Victoria and New South Wales during the winter months. They frequent box-ironbark forests and woodlands, which provide a crucial winter food supply. These habitats are characterized by the presence of tree species such as mugga ironbark (Eucalyptus sideroxylon), grey box (Eucalyptus microcarpa), and yellow gum (Eucalyptus leucoxylon).

In addition to these natural habitats, swift parrots can also be found in agricultural areas, plantations, and urban environments, as long as suitable flowering trees are available. However, these modified landscapes often lack the necessary nesting hollows and are more prone to disturbance.

The preservation and restoration of swift parrot habitats across their range are vital for the long-term survival of this endangered species. Conservation efforts must focus on protecting and managing key breeding and foraging sites, as well as ensuring connectivity between these areas to support the species’ migratory lifecycle.

What do Swift Parrots eat?

As specialized nectar-feeders, Swift Parrots rely on the flowering eucalyptus trees in their range. They are nomadic, following the flowering trees across the landscape to find enough food. The birds use their brush-tipped tongues to efficiently lap up nectar from the blossoms. They will also eat psyllids, lerps, seeds and flowers to supplement their diet.

Why are Swift Parrots endangered?

Sadly, Swift Parrot populations have declined precipitously due to a perfect storm of threats:

  • Habitat loss and fragmentation from logging, agriculture, urbanization and fires have greatly reduced the old-growth forests Swift Parrots need for nesting and feeding.
  • Invasive predators like sugar gliders decimate nesting parrots where they’ve been introduced in Tasmania.
  • Competition from more aggressive honeyeaters and introduced bees and starlings reduces their food supply.
  • Climate change is altering the flowering patterns of their essential eucalyptus food trees.

How many Swift Parrots are left?

Estimates suggest there may be as few as 1000 to 2500 Swift Parrots remaining in the wild, with some experts fearing there could be as few as 300 left. Sightings have decreased in their traditional locations. More research is urgently needed to assess the true population size of this wide-ranging, hard to track species.

Are Swift Parrots and Musk Lorikeets the same?

Though they share some similarities, Swift Parrots and Musk Lorikeets are different species. Swift Parrots are larger, faster flying, and have more prominent red patches. Musk Lorikeets are smaller and have a more rainbow-colored appearance. Swift Parrots are also migratory, while Musk Lorikeets stay in the same region year-round.

What’s being done to help Swift Parrots?

Conservation groups are working diligently to protect Swift Parrot habitat, reduce threats, and boost the population back to sustainable levels. Efforts include:

  • Preserving critical habitat in Tasmania and mainland Australia
  • Restoring degraded forests with important food trees
  • Tracking and studying the parrots to target conservation
  • Predator control and awareness programs
  • Captive breeding as an insurance population

Saving the Swift Parrot will require a concerted, long-term commitment across their range. But with enough habitat protected and threats reduced, there is hope this unique bird can continue its incredible migration for generations to come. Supporting Swift Parrot conservation efforts is vital to making this hope a reality.

Critically Endangered Swift Parrot

How You Can Help swift parrots

  1. Support conservation organizations – Donate to or volunteer with organizations like BirdLife Australia, which are actively involved in swift parrot research, habitat protection, and conservation initiatives.
  2. Plant native vegetation – If you live within the swift parrot’s range, consider planting native eucalyptus species like blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) and black gum (Eucalyptus ovata) to provide additional food sources for the parrots.
  3. Protect mature trees – Advocate for the preservation of mature, hollow-bearing trees in your local area, as these are essential nesting sites for swift parrots.
  4. Support sustainable forestry practices – Choose wood and paper products from sustainably managed forests to reduce the impact of logging on swift parrot habitats.
  5. Control invasive predators – If you live in Tasmania, consider participating in local programs to control sugar gliders, which are invasive predators that threaten nesting swift parrots.
  6. Reduce your carbon footprint – Take steps to minimize your contribution to climate change, which is altering the flowering patterns of the eucalyptus trees swift parrots rely on for food.
  7. Spread awareness – Share this page with information about the plight of swift parrots and the importance of their conservation with friends, family, and your local community to build support for protection efforts.
  8. Participate in citizen science – Take part in bird surveys and monitoring programs to help researchers gather valuable data on swift parrot populations and movements.
  9. Create a wildlife-friendly garden – Design your garden to attract and support native wildlife, including swift parrots, by providing water sources, native plants, and avoiding the use of pesticides.
  10. Advocate for stronger conservation policies – Write to your local representatives and express your support for legislation and policies that protect swift parrots and their habitats, such as the expansion of protected areas and stricter regulations on logging and land clearing.

Individuals can contribute to the collective effort to save the swift parrot from extinction and ensure that this unique and fascinating species continues to grace the skies of southeastern Australia for generations to come.