The Endangered and Elusive Bilby: A Fascinating Marsupial of Australia

Bilby in red desert sands

Bilbies are thought to have lived in Australia for up to 15 million years and were once found across 70% of the country’s landmass

The Bilby, also known as Macrotis lagotis, is a small, nocturnal marsupial native to Australia. With its long ears, distinctive black and white markings, and elusive nature, the Bilby is a beloved and iconic species in Australia.

The Greater Bilby is now commonly referred to simply as “the Bilby,” as the Lesser Bilby (Macrotis leucura) is thought to have become extinct in the early 1950s.

Aboriginal Australians refer to bilbies by up to 20 different names in their songs and stories. While bilbies coexisted with Aboriginal people for 60,000 years, they have been driven nearly extinct in the 200 years since Europeans arrived.

Physical characteristics of the Bilby include a body length of up to 35 cm and a tail length of up to 20 cm. They have long, thin legs and a pointed snout, as well as distinctive long, rabbit-like ears. Their fur is predominantly white, with black markings on their face, ears, and tail.


Bilbies were once abundant across most of Australia. The Tanami Desert in the Northern Territory, the Gibson, Little, and Great Sandy Deserts in Western Australia, the Pilbara and Kimberley regions in Western Australia, and the Mitchell Grasslands in south-west Queensland are the only places where they can be found in the wild today.

Bilbies use their powerful claws to dig extensive tunnels that provide protection from the harsh heat and predators. Each Bilby can have up to 12 burrows, each of which can be up to 3m long and 2m deep.


They dig out bulbs, tubers, spiders, termites, witchetty grubs, and fungus with their long snouts. They lick grass seeds and insects with their tongues.


Bilbies reproduce all year, depending on food availability, with females typically giving birth to one, two, or three tiny offspring. It’s unusual for all of them to live to adulthood.

Newborn bilbies crawl from the birth canal to their mothers’ pouches (which are backward-facing to prevent sand getting in when they dig).
Babies stay in the pouch for approximately 80 days. Female bilbies begin reproducing at the age of six months.


In terms of behavior, Bilbies are solitary animals and are active mostly at night. They use their long ears to listen for predators and prey, and are known to be able to dig deep burrows to escape danger. They communicate with each other through a variety of vocalizations, including high-pitched squeaks and clicks.

Conservation Status

The conservation status of the Bilby is currently listed as “Endangered” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Competition for food from livestock and introduced species such as rabbits, as well as predation by foxes and feral cats, are the two main threats. Bilbies are known to enclose themselves in their burrows to avoid predators, who will frequently try to follow them in.

Changes in fire patterns have also had an impact on Bilbies. That is why it is critical that traditional patch burning be carried out in areas where bilbies still exist.

To help protect and conserve the Bilby, a number of conservation efforts are underway. These include habitat restoration, breeding programs, and education campaigns to raise awareness about the importance of these animals. Additionally, efforts are being made to control introduced species that pose a threat to the Bilby population.

As a species, the Bilby is a unique and fascinating part of Australia’s natural heritage. It is up to all of us to ensure that these animals continue to thrive in their natural habitat for generations to come.