The Domestic Pigeon A Comprehensive Guide

Domestic Pigeon

Feathered Fugitives The Dual Identity of Domestic Pigeons in Australia

Domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) are a subspecies of the rock pigeon that have been bred and kept by humans for thousands of years. They are characterized by their incredible diversity in appearance, behavior, and purpose, with hundreds of distinct breeds recognized worldwide. Domestic pigeons are found in a wide range of colors, patterns, and shapes, from the classic blue-bar to the exotic frills and feathered feet of some fancy breeds.

  • Tracing back over 5,000 years, domestic pigeons have a storied past with humans, beginning in the Middle East and North Africa and spreading globally as civilizations embraced their utility and beauty.
  • Initially valued for food and religious purposes, pigeons later became central in communication as messengers and were bred into a variety of ornamental breeds, reflecting human creativity in animal domestication.
  • Brought to Australia by European settlers, these birds quickly transitioned from domesticated companions to establishing substantial feral populations, adapting effortlessly to urban environments.
  • In Australia, feral pigeons pose significant urban challenges, including architectural damage from their acidic droppings, health risks from potential diseases, and the broader impacts on local wildlife and ecosystems.

Brief history of domestication

Pigeons have the distinction of being the oldest domesticated bird species, with a history of human interaction dating back over 5,000 years. The exact timeline and location of their initial domestication remain unclear, but archaeological evidence suggests that pigeons were first kept by humans in the Middle East and North Africa, possibly as early as 10,000 years ago. From these ancient origins, domestic pigeons have spread across the globe, playing various roles in human societies as messengers, food sources, and cherished companions.

The rock pigeon: the wild ancestor

The rock pigeon (Columba livia) is the wild ancestor of all domestic pigeons. These hardy birds are native to Europe, North Africa, and parts of Asia, where they typically inhabit coastal cliffs and rocky outcrops. Rock pigeons are characterized by their blue-grey plumage, with two black bars on the wings and a white rump. They are highly adaptable and have thrived in a wide range of environments, from natural cliffs to urban buildings. The close relationship between rock pigeons and domestic pigeons is evident in their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets

Some of the earliest written records of domestic pigeons come from ancient Mesopotamia, where cuneiform tablets dating back over 5,000 years mention the keeping of these birds. The Sumerians and Babylonians kept pigeons for their meat and possibly for religious purposes, as they were associated with certain deities. These early accounts provide insight into the long-standing relationship between humans and pigeons in the Middle East.

Egyptian hieroglyphics

Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics also depict domestic pigeons, indicating that these birds were well-established in North Africa by 3,000 BCE. Pigeons were revered in Egyptian culture, with some varieties considered sacred and associated with gods such as Horus and Isis. Pigeons were also used as sacrificial offerings in religious ceremonies, and their meat was consumed by both royalty and commoners. The Egyptians were among the first to develop pigeon-specific housing, known as dovecotes, which allowed for the large-scale breeding and management of these birds.

The domestication of pigeons in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt laid the foundation for their spread and diversification across the world. As human civilizations expanded and traded, domestic pigeons were introduced to new regions, where they adapted to local conditions and were shaped by the preferences of their keepers. This long history of human-pigeon interaction has resulted in the incredible variety of domestic pigeons we see today, from the humble feral pigeon to the extravagant fancy breeds prized by enthusiasts worldwide.

Spread of domestic pigeons

The arrival of domestic pigeons in the Americas coincided with European colonization in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Spanish, Portuguese, and later English and French colonists brought pigeons with them to the New World, primarily as a food source. These birds quickly adapted to the new environment and established feral populations in the growing colonial cities.

As settlements expanded and trade routes developed, domestic pigeons spread throughout the Americas. They became particularly prominent in urban centers, where they thrived on the abundant food sources provided by human activity. Over time, these feral populations interbred with escaped fancy pigeons, resulting in the diverse mix of colors and patterns seen in urban pigeon flocks today.

In addition to their role as a food source, pigeons also served as messengers in the Americas, particularly during times of war. The use of homing pigeons for communication was widespread during the American Civil War and both World Wars, with birds carrying crucial messages across battlefields and between military outposts.

European interest in fancy pigeons

The 18th century marked a turning point in the history of domestic pigeons, as European breeders began to develop a keen interest in creating and refining fancy pigeon breeds. This period saw a surge in the import of exotic pigeon varieties from the Middle East and Asia, which were crossbred with local European breeds to create new and distinctive lineages.

Pigeon breeding became a fashionable hobby among the European elite, with enthusiasts competing to produce the most visually striking and unusual birds. Breeds like the English Carrier, with its elongated neck and pronounced wattle, and the Fantail, with its impressive fan-shaped tail, were developed during this time. Other popular breeds included the Pouter, which was bred for its ability to inflate its crop to an enormous size, and the Tumbler, which was selectively bred for its aerial acrobatics.

The popularity of fancy pigeons spread throughout Europe, with breeders forming clubs and societies to share knowledge and showcase their birds. Pigeon exhibitions became major social events, attracting thousands of visitors and featuring birds from across the continent. This growing interest in pigeon breeding also led to the establishment of pigeon racing as a competitive sport, with birds being bred specifically for their speed and homing abilities.

The legacy of this European fascination with fancy pigeons can still be seen today, with hundreds of recognized breeds and a thriving international community of pigeon enthusiasts.

Breeds and Varieties

Domestic pigeons are incredibly diverse, with over 350 recognized breeds worldwide. These breeds have been developed through selective breeding for various purposes, including meat production, message carrying, and aesthetic appeal. The wide range of colors, patterns, sizes, and shapes found among domestic pigeon breeds is a testament to the skill and dedication of breeders throughout history.

Pigeon breeds can be broadly categorized based on their physical characteristics, such as body shape, feather arrangement, and size. Some breeds, like the Racing Homer, have streamlined bodies built for speed and endurance, while others, like the Fantail, have ornamental features that prioritize appearance over function. The diversity of domestic pigeon breeds is a result of the complex interplay between human selection and the natural adaptability of these birds.

Main categories of breeds

Utility pigeons

Utility pigeons are breeds that have been developed primarily for their practical value, such as meat production or message carrying. These birds are typically larger and more robust than other breeds, with a focus on traits like rapid growth, high fertility, and strong flying abilities.

One of the most well-known utility breeds is the King pigeon, which was developed in the United States specifically for meat production. These birds have large, muscular bodies and can weigh up to 2.5 pounds, making them a valuable source of protein. Other utility breeds, such as the French Mondain and the Hungarian Giant House pigeon, are also prized for their meat and are commonly raised in agricultural settings.

In addition to their value as a food source, some utility pigeons have been used for message carrying, particularly in times of war. Breeds like the English Carrier and the Dragoon have been used to transport messages over long distances, thanks to their strong flying abilities and keen sense of orientation.

Homing pigeons

Homing pigeons are a special category of utility pigeons that have been bred specifically for their ability to find their way home over long distances. These birds have an innate sense of direction and can navigate using a combination of visual cues, magnetic fields, and the position of the sun.

The most famous homing pigeon breed is the Racing Homer, which has been used in pigeon racing for over a century. These birds are capable of flying hundreds of miles in a single day and can reach speeds of up to 90 miles per hour. Racing Homers are bred for a combination of speed, endurance, and navigational ability, with top birds commanding high prices and prestige within the racing community.

Homing pigeons have also played a key role in wartime communication, with birds like Cher Ami and G.I. Joe being awarded medals for their service in World War I and World War II, respectively. Today, homing pigeons are still used in some parts of the world for message carrying, but they are more commonly kept as pets or used in competitive racing.

Fancy pigeons

Fancy pigeons are breeds that have been developed primarily for their aesthetic qualities, such as unique color patterns, feather arrangements, or body shapes. These birds are kept by hobbyists and breeders who appreciate their beauty and enjoy the challenge of perfecting their appearance through selective breeding.

There are countless fancy pigeon breeds, each with its own distinct characteristics. Some breeds, like the Jacobin and the Frillback, have elaborate feather arrangements that give them a regal or exotic appearance. Others, like the Tumbler and the Roller, are bred for their ability to perform aerial acrobatics, flipping and rolling in mid-air.

Fancy pigeons are often exhibited at pigeon shows and competitions, where they are judged on their adherence to breed standards. Breeders may spend years developing their birds and perfecting their lines, with top specimens commanding high prices and accolades within the fancy pigeon community.

While fancy pigeons are primarily kept for their ornamental value, some breeds have also been used for other purposes. For example, the Modena, a breed known for its vibrant colors and sturdy build, has been used for both meat production and as a show bird. Similarly, the Lahore, a large and elegant breed from Pakistan, has been used for both exhibition and utility purposes.

The diversity of domestic pigeon breeds is a testament to the incredible versatility and adaptability of these birds, as well as the ingenuity and dedication of the breeders who have shaped them over centuries. Whether bred for practical purposes or aesthetic appeal, domestic pigeons continue to captivate and inspire people around the world, from backyard enthusiasts to competitive fanciers.

Domestic pigeon reproduction


Mating and nesting

Domestic pigeons, like their wild rock pigeon ancestors, form monogamous pair bonds that often last for life. Courtship behaviors include cooing, preening, and billing, where the male and female gently touch beaks. Once a pair has bonded, they will work together to select a nesting site and build a simple nest made of twigs, straw, and other available materials.

Pigeons typically lay two eggs per clutch, which are incubated by both parents for approximately 18 days. The male and female take turns sitting on the eggs, with the male usually incubating from mid-morning to late afternoon and the female taking over for the rest of the day and night. This shared incubation helps to ensure that the eggs are consistently protected and maintained at the proper temperature for optimal development.

Domestic pigeons can breed year-round under optimal conditions, such as those found in a well-managed loft. In the wild, breeding is more seasonal and depends on factors such as food availability and weather conditions. Feral pigeons in urban environments, however, may breed throughout the year due to the constant availability of food and shelter provided by human activity.

Parental care

Once the eggs hatch, both parents take an active role in caring for the young squabs. For the first few days after hatching, the parents feed their offspring a special substance called “crop milk.” This highly nutritious secretion is produced in the crop, a pouch-like portion of the digestive system, and is regurgitated into the mouths of the squabs.

Crop milk is rich in protein, fat, and antibodies that help the young pigeons grow quickly and develop a strong immune system. As the squabs grow older, the parents gradually transition to feeding them regurgitated seeds and grains, which help the young birds develop their digestive systems and prepare for independence.

Squabs grow rapidly, doubling their birth weight within the first few days of life. They are born with sparse yellow down feathers and their eyes closed, but they quickly develop feathers and open their eyes within a week. By about four weeks of age, the young pigeons are fully feathered and ready to leave the nest, although they may continue to rely on their parents for food and guidance for a short period after fledging.

Parental care in domestic pigeons is characterized by a high level of investment from both the male and female. This shared responsibility helps to ensure the survival and healthy development of the offspring, and reflects the strong pair bond between mated pigeons. The dedication and attentiveness of pigeon parents have made them a symbol of nurturing and devotion in many cultures throughout history.

In addition to their reproductive behaviors, domestic pigeons exhibit a range of other fascinating traits and abilities. Their navigation skills, social interactions, and adaptability to diverse environments have made them a subject of scientific study and popular interest for centuries. Understanding the biology and behavior of these remarkable birds can deepen our appreciation for their complexity and the important roles they play in both natural and human-shaped ecosystems.

Domestic Pigeon poop

Pigeons in Australia – A Different Perspective

Domestic pigeons were introduced to Australia by European settlers in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. These birds were brought over primarily for food and as messenger pigeons, and were kept in captivity. However, some of these pigeons escaped or were released, establishing feral populations in urban and rural areas across the continent.

As these feral pigeons adapted to their new environment and thrived in the absence of natural predators, their populations grew rapidly.

Today, feral pigeons are a common sight in many Australian cities and towns, where they have become a source of controversy and concern.

Feral pigeon populations

Feral pigeons in Australia are descended from escaped or released domestic pigeons, and have adapted to living in close proximity to humans. These birds are highly opportunistic and can survive on a wide range of food sources, from grains and seeds to human food scraps.

Feral pigeon populations are particularly concentrated in urban areas, where they find ample nesting sites in buildings, bridges, and other structures. The warm, dry climate of many Australian cities also provides ideal conditions for these birds to breed year-round, leading to a rapid increase in their numbers.

The exact population of feral pigeons in Australia is difficult to determine, but it is estimated to be in the millions. In some cities, such as Melbourne and Sydney, feral pigeons have become a major urban wildlife species, with their presence and impact on the environment generating significant public debate.

Problems caused by feral pigeons

Building damage and droppings

One of the primary concerns associated with feral pigeons in Australia is the damage they can cause to buildings and infrastructure. Pigeon droppings are acidic and can corrode metal, concrete, and other building materials over time. The accumulation of droppings on buildings and sidewalks can also create slip hazards and an unsightly mess.

Pigeons often nest in the nooks and crannies of buildings, such as eaves, ledges, and air conditioning units. Their nests can clog gutters and drains, leading to water damage and potential fire hazards. The birds themselves can also cause damage by pecking at insulation, wiring, and other building components.

Attracting other pests

Feral pigeon populations can attract other pests, such as rats and mice, which feed on pigeon droppings and any spilled food. These rodents can then go on to cause their own set of problems, such as spreading diseases, damaging property, and contaminating food sources.

Pigeon nests can also harbor mites, fleas, and other parasites that can spread to humans and other animals. In some cases, the presence of feral pigeons can even attract larger predators, such as hawks and falcons, which may pose a risk to small pets or create a nuisance for residents.

Health risks

Feral pigeons can carry and transmit a variety of diseases that can pose a risk to human health. Some of the most common diseases associated with pigeons include:

  • Cryptococcosis: A fungal infection that can cause respiratory illness and meningitis, particularly in people with weakened immune systems.
  • Salmonellosis: A bacterial infection that can cause food poisoning, with symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
  • Psittacosis: A bacterial infection that can cause fever, headache, and pneumonia-like symptoms in humans.
  • Histoplasmosis: A fungal infection that can cause respiratory illness, particularly in people with compromised immune systems.

While the risk of contracting these diseases from feral pigeons is relatively low for most people, those with weakened immune systems, such as the elderly or individuals with chronic illnesses, may be more susceptible.

Pigeon lung and other respiratory issues

In addition to the diseases mentioned above, exposure to pigeon droppings and feathers can also cause respiratory problems in some individuals. One of the most well-known conditions is “pigeon lung,” or bird fancier’s lung, which is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhaling dust from dried pigeon droppings and feathers.

Symptoms of pigeon lung can include shortness of breath, coughing, and fever, and can range from mild to severe depending on the level of exposure and individual sensitivity. In some cases, long-term exposure can lead to permanent lung damage.

Other respiratory issues associated with feral pigeons include allergic reactions to pigeon feathers and dander, as well as asthma exacerbation in individuals with pre-existing respiratory conditions.

Control methods

One of the most effective ways to control feral pigeon populations in Australia is through the use of exclusion and barrier methods. This involves installing physical barriers, such as netting, spikes, or wire coils, on buildings and other structures to prevent pigeons from roosting or nesting.

Exclusion methods can be particularly effective in areas where pigeons are causing damage to buildings or creating a health hazard. By denying the birds access to nesting and roosting sites, property owners can encourage them to move elsewhere and reduce the local population over time.

Population control

In some cases, more direct methods of population control may be necessary to manage feral pigeon numbers. These can include:

  • Egg and nest removal: Regularly removing pigeon eggs and nests can help to limit population growth and discourage birds from nesting in a particular area.
  • Contraception: The use of birth control products, such as OvoControl, can reduce the reproductive success of feral pigeons and gradually lower population numbers over time.
  • Trapping and relocation: In some situations, pigeons may be humanely trapped and relocated to a new area, although this method is generally less effective and more controversial than other control measures.

Population control methods should always be carried out in consultation with local wildlife authorities and in accordance with relevant laws and regulations.

Humane removal

When feral pigeons are causing significant problems or posing a health risk, humane removal may be necessary. This typically involves working with a licensed pest control professional who can safely and effectively remove the birds from the affected area.

Humane removal methods may include the use of live traps, hand capture, or one-way exclusion doors that allow pigeons to exit a building but prevent them from returning. Once captured, the birds can be relocated to a new area or, in some cases, humanely euthanized if they are injured or diseased.

It is important to note that lethal control methods, such as poisoning or shooting, are generally not considered humane or effective for managing feral pigeon populations in Australia. These methods can also pose risks to non-target species and are often met with public opposition.

Feral pigeons are a familiar sight in many Australian cities and towns, they can pose significant challenges for property owners, public health officials, and wildlife managers. By understanding the potential problems associated with these birds and implementing appropriate control measures, communities can work to manage feral pigeon populations humanely and effectively, while also promoting public health and safety. However, it is important to approach these issues with sensitivity and respect for the animals involved, recognizing that feral pigeons are a product of human influence and deserve to be treated with compassion and care.