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The Australian Water Dragon: A Unusual Semi-Aquatic Lizard

Australian Water Dragon

Discovering the Mesmerizing World of Australian Water Dragons


The Australian water dragon, scientifically known as Intellagama lesueurii, is a curious and adaptable species of agamid lizard native to eastern Australia. With its impressive appearance, semi-aquatic lifestyle, and unique behaviors, the water dragon has captured the interest of both wildlife enthusiasts and the general public.

Taxonomy and Subspecies

The Australian water dragon was first described by John Edward Gray in 1831 as Lophura lesueurii. Over time, the species underwent several taxonomic revisions, being placed in the genus Physignathus before finally being reclassified as Intellagama lesueurii in 2012. There are two recognized subspecies: the eastern water dragon (I. l. lesueurii) and the Gippsland water dragon (I. l. howittii), which differ in their coloration and patterning.

Physical Characteristics

Australian water dragons are impressive lizards, with adult males growing slightly longer than one meter (3.3 ft) in total length and weighing around 1 kg (2.2 lbs). Females are slightly smaller, typically reaching about 60 cm (2 ft) in length. The water dragon’s body is well-adapted to its semi-aquatic lifestyle, with powerful limbs and claws for climbing, a long muscular tail for swimming, and prominent nuchal and vertebral crests. The species exhibits sexual dimorphism, with males having larger heads and bolder coloration compared to females.

Behavior and Adaptations

Water dragons are diurnal and semi-aquatic, spending much of their time basking on rocks or branches near water bodies. They are excellent swimmers and can remain submerged for up to 90 minutes to avoid detection by predators. When threatened, they often seek refuge by diving into the water or dropping from overhanging branches. Water dragons are also skilled climbers and can be found in trees near water sources.

These lizards exhibit a range of interesting behaviors, such as head-bobbing and arm-waving, which are used in communication and territorial displays. Males are territorial and may engage in aggressive displays, chasing, and even fighting to establish dominance.

Habitat and Distribution

The Australian water dragon is found in eastern Australia, from Victoria in the south to Queensland in the north, with a potential small introduced population in South Australia. They inhabit areas near water bodies such as creeks, rivers, and lakes, preferring habitats with ample basking sites and vegetation cover. Water dragons can also adapt to urban environments, thriving in parks and gardens where suitable water sources and basking spots are available.

Australian Water Dragon Distribution CC BY-SA 4.0
Australian Water Dragon Distribution CC BY-SA 4.0

Diet and Feeding

Water dragons are omnivorous, with their diet changing as they grow. Juveniles and yearlings primarily feed on insects such as ants, crickets, and spiders. As they mature, their diet expands to include small vertebrates like rodents, frogs, and fish, as well as fruits and vegetation. Water dragons are opportunistic feeders and have been observed catching insects in mid-air, foraging in intertidal zones, and even diving underwater to hunt for prey.

Breeding and Life Cycle

In cooler parts of their range, Australian water dragons hibernate during the winter months. Breeding typically occurs in spring, with males engaging in territorial displays and courtship behaviors. Females lay clutches of 6 to 18 eggs in burrows dug in sandy or soft soil, often in sun-exposed areas. The eggs are subject to temperature-dependent sex determination, with the nest’s temperature influencing the sex of the hatchlings. After hatching, the young water dragons tend to group together, staying close to their birth site before dispersing into the adult population.

Conservation Status

Currently, the Australian water dragon is not considered threatened, and its conservation status is listed as “Least Concern” by the IUCN. However, the species still faces threats such as habitat loss, degradation of water bodies, and predation by introduced species like cats and foxes. Water dragons are protected by law in all states and territories where they naturally occur, and a permit is required to keep them in captivity.

Australian water dragon FAQs

Q: Are Australian water dragons friendly?
A: Australian water dragons are generally not considered friendly in the traditional sense. They are wild animals and can be quite skittish, quickly fleeing when approached by humans. However, in areas where they are frequently exposed to human presence, such as urban parks and gardens, they may become more accustomed to people and appear less fearful. Remember that they are not domesticated animals and should not be treated as pets. Attempting to handle or feed wild water dragons is not recommended, as it can cause undue stress to the animal and potentially lead to defensive behavior like biting or scratching.

Q: Are Australian water dragons aggressive?
A: Australian water dragons are not typically aggressive towards humans unless they feel threatened or cornered. When faced with a perceived threat, they usually prefer to flee and seek refuge in water or dense vegetation. However, males can display aggressive behavior towards other males during the breeding season, engaging in territorial disputes, chasing, and even fighting to assert dominance. This aggression is generally directed towards other water dragons and not towards humans. It is crucial to give water dragons their space and not provoke them, as they may resort to defensive behavior if they feel threatened.

Q: How big do Australian water dragons get?
A: Australian water dragons are one of the largest species of agamid lizards. Adult males can grow slightly longer than one meter (3.3 feet) in total length, including their tail, and weigh around 1 kg (2.2 lbs). Females are typically smaller, reaching about 60 cm (2 feet) in length on average. However, the size of individual water dragons can vary depending on factors such as genetics, diet, and habitat quality. It’s worth noting that the tail comprises about two-thirds of the water dragon’s total length.

Q: Are Australian water dragons protected?
A: Yes, Australian water dragons are protected by law in all states and territories where they naturally occur, including Queensland, New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, and Victoria. It is illegal to capture, kill, or harm water dragons without the appropriate permits. In most cases, a permit is also required to keep water dragons in captivity, and these permits are usually only granted for educational or scientific purposes. The protection status of water dragons highlights the importance of conserving these unique reptiles and their habitats. It is crucial to observe and appreciate water dragons in their natural environment while respecting their space and the laws put in place to ensure their well-being.


The Australian water dragon is a remarkable species that showcases the incredible adaptability and diversity of Australia’s reptile fauna. With its striking appearance, fascinating behaviors, and close association with water, the water dragon has become an iconic species in its native range. As we continue to learn more about these captivating lizards, it is essential to promote their conservation and protect the habitats they depend on. By appreciating and preserving the Australian water dragon, we ensure that future generations can continue to be inspired by these magnificent creatures.

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